The Future of Google Search Engine Rankings

Because everyone is now plugged into the Internet, the way people communicate with each other is faster than ever.

Texting is immediate. Using a social signal to indicate preference is quicker than word of mouth. This type of instant approval has had a profound impact on online marketing. It has killed backlink marketing and put email marketing on life support.

Today’s Internet users – especially younger users – process shorter burst of information more quickly and tend to have much shorter attention spans. As technology improves and speeds get even faster, this trend will only continue in the future.

Backlink Overkill

While backlinks are still helpful in building your sites rankings – especially when they come from authoritative or expert sites – they are aren’t nearly as important as they once were. A decade ago, the number of backlinks a site had was the primary measure of its relevance to Google search engines.

But unethical web users effectively ruined this for everybody by creating commercial and black-hat SEO methods that artificially increased the number of backlinks a particular site had. Google’s Panda and Penguin updates to its search engine algorithm at the beginning of this decade were designed to counteract these inorganic SEO techniques.

Social Approval Signals

After backlinks essentially became corrupted, Google’s search engine development team turned to social approval signals as a more natural, organic way of measuring a web page’s popularity.

While there are still plenty of black hat methods people use to artificially inflate the amount of social signals a site receives – such as creating fake Facebook pages or purchasing “Likes” or “+1s” on – Google’s search engine is better equipped to detect bot-produced Tweets and other phony social media recommendations.

It also gives more weight to social signals from those social media users who are the most active and who have the largest social networks.

A website’s page ranking now depends on its ability to get visitors to “vote” for the site by promoting it on their social media pages or to their social media contacts. As a result, it’s critical that web page owners make it as easy as possible for page visitors to share pages or give social approval signals.

You should always include buttons on your pages that allow visitors to instantly link them to their Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn and Google Plus accounts, as well as to social bookmarking sites such as Digg, Pinterest and StumbleUpon.

If you use WordPress or another popular page-creation site, you can use free drag-and-drop plug-ins to include these buttons on your website. Make sure you display them prominently near the top of the page so that visitors can click on them faster and more easily because not all visitors will scroll all the way to the bottom of your web page.

Google +

Recognizing how improvements to internet access have increased the importance of social media, Google is taking aim at Facebook and Twitter and is positioning Google Plus to be the premier social media site in the years to come.

Google+ has more applications to businesses as well as to individuals than most other social media platforms. It’s “Circles” method of grouping contacts lends itself easily to marketing toward specific groups of customers. And Google’s purchase of YouTube, the world’s most popular video sharing site, makes the company the web’s top provider of video, the fastest-growing content delivery format in the world.

While Facebook and Twitter continue to be important, your social media marketing programs in the coming years need to include Google+ because it is poised to be the most important social media site in the future.

Google has slowly and carefully rolled out its newest features and has yet to devote its full considerable resources to properly marketing the service. But Google+ has all the tools it needs to become the premier social media site on the internet.

If you’d like to learn more about making money online, as well as a way to generate conversion-ready Internet marketing prospects each month, click here to learn about my done-for-you system.

Make Money with Private Label Rights Marketing

Have you ever gone to your local supermarket and seen products on the shelf — such as a can of cut corn or red beans — that had the store’s own label on it? There are a lot of grocery chains that sell hundreds of different types of these products, known as “packer” brands, and it’s not just Kroger, SuperValue and other big chains.

Did you think each store has its own private cannery where they package and label their private label three bean salad and other products? I can assure you, they don’t.

Nearly all of these private label products for every grocery chain are manufactured in the same plant. Each store chain enters into agreements with the central manufacturer to put their own private label brand on each of these products.

Private Label Rights Marketing

So what does this have to do with Internet marketing? A lot!

As an Internet marketer, you don’t always have to write your own eBook, create your own video series, or even develop your own images and audio recordings to promote to your customers. All of these things can be purchased and then modified using your type of packer brand known as Private Label Rights (PLR) products.

Freedom To Modify

Usually when you buy a PLR product, you can edit or modify it any way you like. You can then sell it as your own, with your own name on it as the creator if you want.

For example, if you buy a 15-chapter PLR eBook that offers advice on how to get over a breakup, you can break it into 15 or more blogs and post them individually. Or you can use the eBook as a script for a video series on saving relationships and sell it online.

You can change the title, list yourself as the author, add or remove images, or do whatever you like. Once you pay for it, the PLR product belongs to you!

Sourcing PLR Products

Finding PLR products is super simple. Simply go to Google and run a search for “Where can I find PLR products”. You will instantly get thousands of links to websites offering all types of PLR products.

Avoid sellers that try to sell you bundled PLR packages because you can take individual products and create your own branded products on your own.

Two of the best are and Warrior Forum also has thousands of high-quality PLR products for sale.

Choosing the Best PLR Products

Since you are going to be modifying the product on your own – rearranging it, editing it, rewriting it, possibly breaking it into smaller pieces – choose something in a niche in which you have at least a passing familiarity.

For example, if you know nothing about civil engineering, it might be hard for you to create a fresh, marketable product out of a PLR civil engineering textbook.

Stick to Your Budget

You also want to avoid overspending. PLR products come in many various platforms – from eBooks to videos, audio recordings to bundles of articles, graphics to programming code – and at different price points.

Remember: Your goal is to make money by reselling the product either as a whole or in parts, so the lower your upfront costs the more money you stand to make as profit.

When you find a PLR product you like, pay for it and it will be sent to you electronically, usually as either an email attachment or as a Zip file.

If you’d like to learn more about PLR products, as well as a way to generate conversion-ready Internet marketing prospects each month, click here to learn about my done-for-you system.

Getting the Most From Your Affiliate Sales Network

When you run your own Internet marketing business, your top priority needs to be maximizing your return on investment (ROI). The best way to do that is to motivate your sales force: Your affiliate marketing network.

And the best motivation ever created is money.

Creating Sales Incentives

A small investment that can bring huge results is to incentivize your sales force with bonus offers and other extras.

For example, assume you have 10 affiliate marketers in your network, each of whom bring in about $100 per week, or a total of $1,000, in sales for you . If you are paying 50% in commissions, then each marketer makes an average of $50/week in sales commissions.

Now, if you were to offer a $50 bonus each week to the marketer who had the highest sales, your average production per week per affiliate would likely go up as each affiliate marketer competed for the $50 bonus.

It would not be unreasonable for this type of incentive to increase the average weekly sales per affiliate to $125/week, or a total of $1,250. So for your relative small $50 investment – which is only 10% of your weekly profits — you gained $250, or additional ROI of $200, or 40%.

That’s like paying $1 to make $4, a winning formula every time!

Cash Is King

Cash bonuses are a powerful incentive. But you can also structure your commission rates so that they are tiered.

With this type of structure, affiliate marketers with lower sales receive a standard commission. But as they achieve pre-defined volume levels their commissions can increase. Again, this results in stronger sales for you with no additional work on your part.

For example, you offer to pay newbie affiliates a 20% commission. But if they sell more than $1,000 per week, you offer to increase their commission to 40%. This is going to make most of your affiliates work harder to sell more than $1,000 worth of your products so they can earn that extra cash.

Checking Up on Your Affiliates

As an Internet marketer, your reputation is your livelihood. But because you need to depend on affiliate marketers to serve as your sales force, you are at their mercy as to how the reach their sales objectives.

If they are dishonest or deceitful, or they treat their customers rudely or insensitively, it reflects on you as well as them. After all, it’s your products they are selling.

It’s important, therefore, to continually monitor the way your affiliate marketing network interacts with your end user customers. Sometimes it’s helpful to pose as a potential buyer to view firsthand how the interaction is handled. If you aren’t satisfied with the experience, you shouldn’t expect your customers to be either.

Getting Rid of Poor Affiliates

The great thing about using affiliate marketers as your sales force is that there are always others waiting in the wings to replace those you currently use. You can dump affiliates at the slightest hint of impropriety.

If you have to dump an affiliate, don’t sweat it: You can be in business and be friendly, but you can’t always be in business and be friends.

If you’d like to learn more about affiliate marketing, as well as a way to generate conversion-ready Internet marketing prospects each month, click here to learn about my done-for-you system.

Make Money Online Selling the Right Physical Products

Drop ship products are those products that you promote to your customers that are actually owned, warehoused or shipped by somebody else. Usually, this is either a wholesaler or a manufacturer.

When you run a drop ship business, you enter into an agreement with a supplier who will ship the products directly to the customer. In some instances, the wholesaler will package these products under your own private label and/or with your return address package so that the customer doesn’t even realize that they are dealing with a dropshipper.

Types of Drop Ship Products

You can set up a drop ship business that sells products in every imaginable genre, from electronics to clothing to home goods, even cars. Selecting the best products for your particular customers is an important decision and depends on several important criteria:

  • Which products your customers are most likely to buy
  • How much you can expect to charge for your products
  • What the wholesale price is for your products, or what your supplier is charging you
  • How your deal with your supplier is structured and what terms you can reach in regards to shipping products directly to your customers

Some drop ship business offer a wide assortment of products covering many different genres, while others focus on one or two specialized areas. The scope of products you offer will depend on your customer base and experience level.

Manufacturers and Wholesalers

Dropshipping is becoming more common among online business owners, so there are a lot more wholesalers and manufacturers today who are open to the concept of shipping directly to your customers.

And why wouldn’t they be? Dropshipping lets them sell additional units of their products without having to worry about marketing their products themselves. Because own the drop ship business, you essentially are their sales force for their products.

Identifying Suppliers

Finding high quality suppliers isn’t complicated. Once you determine what kinds of products you want to offer, the rest is easy.

The first places to consider are the big, global wholesalers that provide products to most of the dropshipping industry, such as and, among others. You can even work with Amazon, the world’s largest online retailer.

Striking Out on Your Own

Some dropshipping business owners prefer to cut their own deals directly with private wholesalers and manufacturers. If you want to try this, you can research trade magazines, industry journals and marketplace websites. These are all great places to learn about and make contact with suppliers directly.

Dropshipping is a viable option for Internet marketers. If you’d like to learn more about making money online, as well as a way to generate conversion-ready Internet marketing prospects each month, click here to learn about my done-for-you system.

How to Make Original Products from PLR Content

When you purchase Private Label Rights products, they are yours to do with as you please. But you probably don’t want to do is to offer it for sale as is. That’s because the person you bought your PLR product most likely sold the same product to other marketers, who also can offer it for sale as is.

If you offer the exact same product as somebody else, it’s not original and probably isn’t going to sell as well. It could also harm your reputation.

Instead, you want to modify the product to make it uniquely your own. At the very least, you are going to want to come up with a new title and list yourself as the author.

Edit Content to Make It Original 

The first thing you want to do is to review the PLR product eBook you bought. If it’s an eBook, for example, scan through it from start to finish.

Sometimes it’s helpful to print up a hard copy so that you can mark up the things you want to change and write down your thoughts as you go through the text for the first time. Another option is to read it on your laptop or computer and use the Notes program on Microsoft Word to mark up the text.

When you are with your PLR product, make a list of the parts you want to keep and take note of those you want to change or cut altogether.

What to Change

Don’t forget: You can use the existing text – either in total or in parts – to create your original product if you want. But the best PLR products have the voice of the seller, so you are probably going to want to rewrite most or all of it.

Feel free to change headlines and sub-heads, rewrite entire sections, add new material and throw out parts you don’t like. Use the photos, illustrations and other images that came with the book, or get rid of them and find new ones.

How to Add New Content to PLR Products

To add new material to the text, you can either add content that you already own or search for additional content on the internet.

Wikipedia is always a good place to start because everything on this encyclopedia site is in the public domain. Just be careful about copying and pasting whole sentences or paragraphs because if you do this it’s easy for people to see where you got your source material.

Using Photos and Images

When it comes to photos and other images, the ones that came with the PLR product are yours, but you shouldn’t copy and paste images you find online into your new product, even if you have found the perfect image on Google Images or some other site.

A better plan is to purchase photos from a stock photo website. When you purchase the photos, you also buy a license that defines how you can use them. In many instances, you can use them in your new products without having to pay any further royalties or fees.

The best stock photo sites to use are:

Free Photos and Images

Another option is to use images that are in the public domain. That means they are not copyright protected and you can use them any way you want. Some of the best places to find these free images are:

If you’d like to learn more about private label rights, as well as a way to generate conversion-ready Internet marketing prospects each month, click here to learn about my done-for-you system.

The Best Niches for Long-Term Information Products

When selecting a niche for an information product you want to promote, you want to find one that is narrow enough so that you aren’t spinning your wheels marketing to an overly large audience, but broad enough to include a lot of different types of info-products and services that customers within your niche will want to buy.

For example, the niche market “info products for people who live in Canada” is too large because it includes millions potential customers who use a nearly infinite amount of infoproducts.

The niche market “Canadian Football League fans who live in Winnipeg and drive Nissans that are more than 10 years old and have a sister named Phyllis” would be too narrow because there wouldn’t be enough prospective customers to make your marketing efforts worthwhile.

Neither Too Broad or Too Narrow

The key to any information marketing campaign is identifying the most profitable niches that are neither too broad nor too narrow.

The best way to do this is through research. There are a lot of free research tools available on the Internet that are more than capable of identifying the best possible niches for you.

Consider Long-Term Profitability

Niches for information marketing can be broken down into two basic categories: Short-term niches and long-term niches.

Short-term niches have a lifespan that was relatively limited, such as Easter or Valentine’s Day. If you work with products in a niche this tight, once Easter has passed there are going to be very few customers looking for those types of niche info-products.

It’s better to pick long-term niches because they offer a much longer lifespan. That way can continue to sell infoproducts within that niche to your customers almost without end.

What’s a long-term niche? An example might be dog training. People will always buy puppies and untrained dogs who need to learn basic obedience, so you can continue to sell infoproducts within this niche indefinitely.

Choose Evergreen Niches for Infoproducts

Evergreens are a shrub or tree that stays green all year. Evergreen niches for your information infoproduct are those that aren’t seasonal. That means your customers will buy the information infoproducts you offer anytime.

Classic examples of evergreen niches include relationships/dating, acne cures and housecleaning infoproducts. It doesn’t matter what time of year it is or what holiday is coming, people need to buy infoproducts within these niches anytime.

People selling evergreen infoproducts or services can count on earning money every month, year in and year out. That’s because their infoproducts and services are needed all the time.

Forever Products

Evergreen infoproducts sell regardless of what’s popular. They are always going to be popular, no matter how well or how well or poorly the economy is doing or how big or small the marketplace is.

They offer solutions to problems that can never truly be solved or are so universal that there will always be people looking for infoproducts to help them solve them.

But competition in evergreen niches is high. After all, these are the markets where the money is. But if you promote high-quality infoproducts in any of these niches, you can create a successful long-term business.

If you’d like to learn more about info-products and evergreen niches, plus have access to even more powerful marketing strategies, helpful information and ways to increase your sales and revenues, click here now.

5 Secrets to Engaging Email Copy

Emails should convince readers to take some sort of action, whether it is to sign up for a special offer or respond with specific information.

The purpose of your email is its Call to Action (CTA), and it should be clearly stated as unambiguously as possible within the body of your email. 

Keep It Brief

Most people find emails to be an inconvenient yet necessary part of interacting with other people online. So they don’t have a lot of patience for emails that are long on content but short on substance.

To connect better with your customers, make sure they get to the point quickly, use brief sentences or bullet points whenever possible, and clearly state your CTA so that your readers understand your intention as quickly and clearly as possible.

Every Word Matters

Given the short attention span and impatience of email readers, you have only a few moments to get the point of your email across. That means ever word has to count.

Good persuasive writing understands what motivates the reader. As you compose your email, consider what your readers want when they are reading it. Convince them that their best interests are at the heart of the email. 

Call to Action

You must be very clear about what you want the reader to do, when you want them to do it and why they should do it, especially in light of how it benefits them.

It’s best to give your readers a motivation to follow your CTA by always explaining exactly what’s in it for them. 

Proving High-Value Content

When people read your email, they are giving you both their time and attention. Respect the value of each. Make it worth their while by providing high-value content that includes information they will actually find useful.

Delivering high-value content can increase the chances of their opening and reading future emails that you send.

Remember, you don’t always need to be promoting or selling products or idea in your emails. Your readers will be more likely to open your future emails if you give them something of value, such as how to do something or important facts and information they can use. 

Making an Emotional Connection

If you want to build loyalty in your customers, you need to find a way to connect with them on an emotional level. Sharing a personal story is a great way to do this. People love stories and are more likely to read to the end of your email if there is some personal lesson to express or point to be made.

You also can add to the value of your emails by including details about your personal life, your family, your career, education and other experiences. That way, readers will genuinely care about what you have to say.

If you’d like to have access to even more powerful marketing tips, as well as a way to generate conversion-ready Internet marketing prospects each month, click here to learn about my done-for-you system.

Why You Need a Business Plan

If you are seeking to open a new business – either online or in the real world – and you don’t have the capital, you will need to seek help from institutional or individual investors. And the first thing they are going to want to see before they invest a dime in your business is your business plan.

What Is a Business Plan?

The business plan serves two essential functions:

  1. It provides a blueprint that you can use to build your business
  2. The business plan explains to investors why your business will be financially successful

What investors want to see is a business plan that presents a model of what your business will look like from its very beginning until it is operating at full capacity. Your business plan should include realistic, attainable objectives. If it includes unrealistic revenue forecasts or is built on a swampy foundation, your business plan won’t fly.

Benefits of a Business Plan

Even if you are going to be your business’ only employee and work out of your home, you still need a business plan. That’s because your business needs a map that leads it where you want it to go.

Although your business plan should be as detailed as possible, the larger and more complicated your business will be, the more detail your business plan will need to include.

You will need to rely on your business plan and reference it frequently both before and after you launch your business, so it’s absolutely necessary that you have everything in place as much as possible from the beginning.

Elements of a Business Plan

Successful business plans have five elements:

Background Information – How and why are you creating this business? Here you will include general information such as what types of products and/or services you will be selling.

Marketing Plan – Explain what type of marketing you plan to use to promote your business, such as paid advertising, social media marketing and direct marketing.

Operational Plan – Indicate how your business will function. Include hours of operation, estimated number of employees, location, and any other relevant operational data.

Financial Plan – This may be the most important part. You need to explain your financial goals and a detailed account of your estimated costs, including payroll, rent, overhead, supplies, raw materials and any other expenditure.

Decision-Making Criteria – In this section, indicate what types of things you are going to consider before moving forward with the plan.

Every business plan is different. There’s not one single template you can use and simply fill in the specific details of your business proposal. When developing your plan, present the information so that anybody can use it as a tool to decide whether or not to proceed with the business.

Getting Help with Your Business Plan

If you have a partner, they ca n assist you in developing your business plan. Others who can help you include your accountant, if you have one. In most cases, CPAs have enough experience to identify glaring errors so you can correct them before showing it to anybody else.

Your next stop should be trusted professionals in the same field as yours. While you may not want to hand your business plan to somebody you will be competing against directly, if you have a friend, a former business school professor you are still close with, or a mentor who can give you genuine, helpful advice, see if they would be willing to take a look at your business plan.

When you have as much feedback as you need and have made the necessary changes to your plan so it is as accurate and realistic as possible, you can use it to attract investors. When you present to investors or apply for a business loan, your business plan will serve as the centerpiece of your pitch.

If you’d like more powerful marketing tips, as well as a way to generate conversion-ready Internet marketing prospects each month, click here to learn about my done-for-you system.

Using QR Codes to Make Money with Mobile Marketing

Quick Response Codes, or QR Codes for short, are those funny looking little black and white squibs that you see on subway signs, magazine advertisements and lots of other places these days.

QR Codes are a variation of the bar code – also known as the Universal Product Code (UPC) – which has been used since the 1970s at retail checkout areas. Bar codes also are commonly used for inventory purposes.

QR Codes were first used in 1994, when engineers at a Japanese factory owned by a subsidiary of Toyota wanted to create a three-dimensional version of the bar code that could hold exponentially more information and that could be decoded at faster speeds. The first QR Code was used to control the inventory of automobile parts as they moved through the manufacturing process.

How QR Codes Work

Unlike UPCs – which are mechanically scanned by a narrow beam of light – QR Codes are scanned as a two-dimensional image by a semiconductor image sensor. This image is then digitally analyzed by the processor the scanning device.

The processor detects the three distinctive squares at the corners of the image, and – with the help of a fourth smaller square in the fourth corner – automatically converts the image into a standard size, orientation and angle of viewing. The tiny dots are then converted into binary code, which is matched against an error-detecting code.

The binary code can represent anything, such as text or an image, but in most cases it is a Uniform Resource Locator (URL), or an Internet address.

Uses and Benefits

Anybody with a mobile phone or tablet can scan a QR Code. Scanning apps are free and can be downloaded instantly on iTunes, Google Apps, the Android store and elsewhere.

Other apps let users generate and print their own QR Codes for others to scan and be diverted a device to a URL, eliminating the need to the user to copy down and type in a web address.

QR Codes are used widely in advertising. But they also can be used by online marketers to promote offers and to send traffic to web pages. Other uses for QR Codes include:

  • Visiting a Google+ or Facebook profile
  • Showing your branding on textiles such as t-shirts or bags and other articles like mugs
  • Checking in on recommendation services like foursquare
  • Using QR codes in blogs
  • Playing a YouTube video
  • Easily installing an app from the App Store or Android Market
  • Sending a predefined short message (premium services)
  • Sending a Tweet with your content

Mobile Marketing Uses

QR Codes are most frequently used for mobile marketing. They are supported by Google’s mobile Android operating system; in iOS devices such as the iPhone, iPad and iPod; on BlackBerry devices, on the Windows Phone, and even on the Nintendo 3DS.

Once scanned, QR Codes can use a URL to lead users to website where they can view useful content. This can include expanded product information, locations and store hours of the places where the product can be purchased, and even links to buy the product right away.

QR Codes also can be used for mobile tagging. This is when you capture the reading device’s phone number and automatically send an email or text message either right away or at some predetermined future time. Mobile tagging also can launch a sequence of email swipes designed to build excitement and encourage brand loyalty.

If you’d like more powerful marketing tips, as well as a way to generate conversion-ready Internet marketing prospects each month, click here to learn about my done-for-you system.

Social Bookmarking for Internet Marketers

Social bookmarking is when you collect web pages, links, videos, and other web-based content that you use enjoy or frequently collect them all in a single place so others can see them.

Social bookmarking lets you save links to web pages you want to share. Usually, these links are published publicly, although there are some private social bookmarking sites. Other web users can then easily access those pages.

Uses of Social Bookmarking

Bookmarks can be shared with specific people, or with entire groups of people. Or they can be shared within networks of users or other combinations of private and public users.

Different social bookmarking sites post these links in various ways. Some allow links to be viewed chronologically, by category or tags, or via a search engine. One social bookmarking site – the popular StumbleUpon – even presents the links randomly.

Social bookmarking sites such as Tumblr and others also normally provide web feeds for their lists of bookmarks, including lists organized by tags, keywords or categories. This is so visitors can view new links as they are posted by other users.

Some social bookmarking sites even include features that allow visitors to rate content, add comments, import and export bookmarks from browsers, email links, and even form or join groups devoted to particular links, topics or hashtags.

Social Bookmarking and Web Promotion

You can promote your products, offers and web pages with social bookmarking sites because they attract new and active visitors who are interested in very specific niche topics. Visitors can access your posts from many different access points then pin your link on their social bookmarking pages, creating free, targeted traffic streams to your web pages and offers.

Social bookmarking can improve your site’s search engine rankings as well. Most social bookmarking sites will automatically index your page. Google and other search engines then use these indexes to assign value to web pages. If your page appears on a lot of social bookmarking pages, its value increases and your pages get ranked higher.

Simple Categorization

Social bookmarking also has the benefit of letting you bookmark specific pages or entire sites. These can then be accessed by anybody by using niche keywords. If your page has content people find worthwhile, it probably will be posted on many other social bookmarking pages, resulting in a lot of backlinks to your page. This will lead to more traffic and revenue.

Top Social Bookmarking Sites

Social bookmarking sites’ popularity tends to have more volatility than social media sites, probably because people tend to lose interest quickly after the bloom of initial enthusiasm for a particular site wears off.

But some social bookmarking sites remain popular:

  • Digg – This is one of the biggest “social news” sites where users can post interesting articles and links. The most popular articles or links get pushed to the top of the Digg feed. Those that are unpopular fall to the bottom.
  • Flickr – This is a popular free photo sharing site. Users can upload photos or photo albums to the site and invite other users to look at them. You also can use Flickr to promote your products and offers.
  • YouTube –The biggest free video sharing site, YouTube lets users post videos then add tags to them to make it easier for other users to find them using the site’s own search engine. It’s one of the best social bookmarking sites for marketing your products and offers because video is the preferred way people seek content on the Internet today.

If you’d like more powerful marketing tips, as well as a way to generate conversion-ready Internet marketing prospects each month, click here to learn about my done-for-you system.